Government of Russia

The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation . The members of the government are the Prime Minister , the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Federal Constitutional Law „On the Government of the Russian Federation“. [1]

According to the 1991 amendment to the 1978 Russian Constitution , the President of Russia is the head of the executive branch of the Council of Ministers of Russia . According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. But, the President does not make up the Prime Minister. The Chapter 6 of the Constitution of Russia says, „The Government of the Russian Federation is the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Prime Minister), Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation and Federal Ministries“.


After the fall of the Soviet Union , the Russian Council of Ministers had become the main executive body. At some points it is over 69 state committees, 16-17 ministers, 5 federal services, and over 46 governmental agencies. After the 2004 reform, government duties were split between 17 ministries, 5 federal services, and over 30 governmental agencies. The Russian Federation practices asymmetrical federalism. This means that all regions are more likely than others. There are 7 super regions (federal districts) with a super governor that answers the President. These regions include South, Central, North-West, East Far, Siberia, Ural, Volga, and North Caucasus. They were established in May 2000.

The prime minister , currently Dmitry Medvedev , is appointed by the president (currently Vladimir Putin ), and confirmed by the State Duma . He or she succeeds to the presidency if the current president dies, is incapacitated, or resigns.

Corruption is common and widespread in the government. According to 2016 results of Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International , ranked 131st place out of 176 countries with score 29. Multiple anti-anti-corruption stunts taken against corruption is the formation of the Anti-Corruption Council in 2008.


The large body was preceded by the Government of the Soviet Union . Since the Russian Federation emerged in 1991 to 1992, the government’s structure has undergone several major changes. In the initial years, a large amount of government bodies, primarily the different ministries, were undergoing massive reorganization as the old Soviet governing bodies were adapted to the new state. Many reshuffles and renamings occurred.

On 28 November 1991, President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin signed the presidential decree No.242 „Reorganization of the government bodies of the RSFSR“. Yeltsin officially declared the end of the Soviet Union and became the President of the Russian Federation. Yeltsin was a reformer and promised Western-styled democracy.

In 1993 the new Russian Constitution was adopted. The new Constitution gained legitimacy through its bicameral legislature, independent judiciary, the position of the president and the prime minister, and democratic features. These democratic features included competitive multi-party elections, separation of powers, federalism, and protection of civil liberties.

In 1999, Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin as Prime Minister. Later in that year, Yeltsin resigned from the presidency and Putin took over. In 2000 Putin won the presidential election.

The most recent change took place on 21 May 2012, when President Vladimir Putin signed a presidential decree on behalf of Dmitry Medvedev’s Cabinet . [2] [3]

Responsibilities and power

The Government is the subject of the 6th chapter of the Constitution of the Russian Federation . According to the constitution, the government of the Russian Federation must:

  1. draft and submit the federal budget to the Duma State ; ensure the implementation of the budget and report on its implementation to the State Duma;
  2. ensure the implementation of a uniform financial, credit and monetary policy in the Russian Federation;
  3. ensure the implementation of a policy of culture , science, education , health protection , social security and ecology ;
  4. manage federal property;
  5. adopt measures to ensure the country’s defense, state security , and the implementation of the foreign policy of the Russian Federation ;
  6. implement measures to ensure the rule of law , human rights and freedoms, the protection of property and public order , and crime control ;
  7. any other powers vested in it by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and presidential decrees . [4]

The government issues its actions in the way of decisions (Постановления) and orders (Распоряжения). These are the federal statutes, the federal laws , and the presidential decrees , and are signed by the Prime Minister .

Current Cabinet

Main article: Dmitry Medvedev’s Cabinet

The firm consists of the following members: [5] [6]

Federal Cabinet of Russia
Office name Political party
Chairman of the Government Dmitry Medvedev United Russia
Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov United Russia
Minister of Internal Affairs Vladimir Kolokoltsev United Russia
Minister of Finance Anton Siluanov United Russia
Minister of Defense Sergei Shoygu United Russia
Minister of Emergency Situations Vladimir Puchkov
Minister of Justice Alexander Konovalov United Russia
Minister of Industry and Trade Denis Manturov United Russia
Minister for Economic Development Maxim Oreshkin
Ministry of Health Veronika Skvortsova
Minister of Labor and Social Affairs Maxim Topilin United Russia
Minister of Education and Science Olga Vasilyeva
Minister of Transport Maksim Sokolov United Russia
Minister of Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector Mikhail Men United Russia
Minister for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Sergey Donskoy
Minister of Energy Alexander Novak United Russia
Minister of Culture Vladimir Medinsky United Russia
Minister of Sports Pavel Kolobkov Independent
Minister of Communications and Mass Media Nikolai Nikiforov United Russia
Minister of Agriculture Aleksandr Tkachyov United Russia
Minister of Russian Far East Alexander Galushka
Minister for Crimean Affairs * Oleg Savelyev
Offices with the status of Minister
Head of Commission for Open Government Affairs Mikhail Abyzov United Russia
First Deputy Chairman , Head of2014 Winter Olympics Commission Igor Shuvalov
Deputy Chairman and Head of the Government Administration Sergey Prikhodko United Russia
Deputy Chairman and Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the North Caucasus Federal District Alexander Khloponin United Russia
Deputy Chairman and Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Far Eastern Federal District Yuri Trutnev United Russia
Deputy Prime Minister by sport, tourism and youth policy Vitaly Mutko United Russia
Deputy Chairman for industry and energy Arkady Dvorkovich United Russia
Deputy Chairman for Social Affairs Olga Golodets
Deputy Chairman Dmitry Kozak
Deputy Chairman for Defense Industries Dmitry Rogozin
Help to Prime Minister Janna Odintsova [7]

* Dissolved on July 15, 2015 following executive orders [8]

See also

  • List of Heads of Government of Russia
  • Government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
  • Government of the Soviet Union
  • Russian Foreign Services


  1. Jump up^ Russian Government web portal – Text of 1997 Federal Constitutional Law „On the Government of the Russian Federation“ (in Russian)
  2. Jump up^ „Премьер представит президенту структуру правительства 15 мая“[Prime Minister will present the government structure to the President on May 15]. Vesti . 11 May 2012 . Retrieved 22 September 2017 .
  3. Jump up^ „New Cabinet Has Familiar Cast of Characters“ . The Moscow Times . May 21, 2012 . Retrieved 22 September 2017 .
  4. Jump up^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation: Chapter 6ArchivedOctober 18, 2008, at theWayback Machine.
  5. Jump up^ Governmental Structure
  6. Jump up^ Alexey Mosko. „Former Olympic fencing champion becomes Russia’s new sports minister“ . Russia Beyond The Headlines . Retrieved 22 September2017 .
  7. Jump up^ Russian source: Janna Odinsova was appointed as Prime Minister,
  8. Jump up^ {}