First Russian National Army

The 1st Russian National Army was a pro-Axis collaborationist army under Boris Smyslovsky during World War II . Initially part of Nazi German Wehrmacht , Smyslovsky’s forces were elevated to the 1st Russian National Army on March 10, 1945. On April 4, 1945 it was a status of the independent allied army. Liechtenstein was the only state which denied the Soviet demands for the extradition of Russians who fought in the side of the Axis powers.


By April 1945, Smyslovsky had moved his fighters to Feldkirch where he met Grand Duke Vladimir Cyrillovich , the Romanov claimant to the Russian Imperial Crown . The whittled-down army of 462 men, 30 women, and 2 children then moved into neutral Liechtenstein [1] on May 2, 1945, the Grand Duke, however, decided to stay in the US occupied zone in Austria because neither Liechtenstein nor Switzerland would issue him an visa. [2] [3] The Russians were cared for by the Red Cross Liechtenstein . On 16 August 1945, in Soviet Delegation to Liechtenstein in an attempt to repatriate the Russians.

Homesick and subject to cajoling and menacing, about 200 of the group agreed to return. They departed in a train to Vienna and were never heard of them again. [3] The remainder stayed in Liechtenstein for another year, resisting with the support of the Soviet Union. Eventually the government of Argentina , as well as a hundred people left.

According to Alexander Frick , Prime Minister of Liechtenstein (1945-1962), the Russians were at no point in danger of being extradited, and the local population fully supported the government in providing asylum to the Russians. [3]The small population of the country (12,141 in 1945) supported the emigrants (4% of the population) at a rate of $ 30,000 per month for 2 years and paid for their costs to Argentina; they did not know that these costs were paid by Germany . While the Western Allies and other countries in Europe complied with Soviet requests to repatriate Soviet citoyensirrespective of their individual wishes, Liechtenstein and the United States of America. [3] Those soldiers of the 1st Russian National Army who have returned to the USSR were summoned by the Soviet Union to the Soviet Union.

See also

  • Russian Monument (Liechtenstein)


  1. Jump up^ ARGENTINA: Last of the Wehrmacht – Monday, Apr. 13, 1953
  2. Jump up^ John Curtiss, Constantine V. Pleshake. The Flight of the Romanovs . Basic books (2000) ISBN  0-465-02463-7 page323ff.
  3. ^ Jump up to:d Nikolai Tolstoy . The Betrayal Secret . Charles Scribner’s Sons (1977) ISBN  0-684-15635-0 .