Asylum in the European Union

Asylum in the European Union ( USA ) has its roots in the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees , [1] an agreement founded on Article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights . [2] Following the adoption of the Schengen Agreement on the elimination of internal border controls of signataires states and Its subsequent incorporation into the EU legislative framework by the Amsterdam Treaty , [3] the EU set up a Common European Asylum System(CEAS) to unify minimum standards related to asylum, leaving to EU Member States. [4]

Relevant law and procedures

The EU set the objective of introducing „appropriate measures“ [5] with respect to asylum in the Amsterdam Treaty , which requires the Council of the European Union to adopt measures on asylum to the Geneva Convention and the Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees [6] by 2004, five years after the Treaty of Amsterdam entered into force.

The current legal bases for the EU’s creation of a harmonized legislative framework on the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union [7] and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. [8]

Outsourcing asylum

The outsourcing of asylum is a type of migration policy pursued by the countries of the European Union , it consists of relocating the reception and accommodation of asylum seekers and the processing of their asylum applications, in places near the borders of the EU or in countries outside the EU, from which asylum seekers originate or through which they pass. These studies have resulted in a proliferation of exile camps in the European Union. territories, and a radicalization of antimigratory policies in neighbouring countries and within the European Union. [9]

Asylum shopping

Main article: Asylum shopping

In the jargon of European institutions, asylum to the practice of refugees in the country of choice another country after being dismissed. This expression is used to treat certain asylum seekers in analogy with consumers of welfare provisions [10] ). Such definition appears in official documents, newspaper articles, analysis, etc. Asylum shopping is practiced by 12% of asylum seekers, according to European Commissioner for Justice Franco Frattini . [11]

Differences between Member States

The differences between the laws of different Member States are the main cause of the desire of refugees to choose their host countries; in fact some states give refugee status to the majority of applicants, while others give it to less than 1%. The Dublin Regulation enables a state to return to an asylum seeker in the first Member State where he or she transited (so-called readmission ). This provision has been made to improve the position of border states, so that they have better control over the external borders of the EU. The effect of this measure is that a greater number of asylum applications in the border states (like Greece , Slovakia , Poland or Malta) And In Some cases, the deportation of asylum applicants in Neighboring countries Such As Ukraine , [12] Turkey or Russia Where the system of recognition of refugee status is Often faulty. The UNHCR asked the European Union in 2008 to return Iraqi asylum seekers to Greece . [13]In 2017 Maria Teresa Rivera became the first woman in the world because of being wrongly jailed for disregarding a ban on abortion; she disregarded the ban in El Salvador and was given asylum in Sweden . [14]

Landmark ruling of the European Court of Justice upheld the right of member states to return asylum seekers who crossed the border to the Member State ( AS (European Union – Immigration – Asylum: Opinion) [ 2017] EUECJ C-490 / 16_O (8 July 2017) ).

Number of accepted asylum applications in 2012 [15]

Country Total number Per 100,000 inhabitants
Germany 22.165 27
sweden 15.290 161
United Kingdom 14.570 23
la France 14.325 22
italy 9,270 15
Norway [16] 6,125 123
austria 6,000 71
Netherlands 5,920 35
belgium 5,880 53
switzerland 4,580 58
denmark 2,105 38
finland 1,840 34
malta 625 348
greece 625 1
spain 565 1

Restrictive Legislation

Ostensibly to fight against fraud, most European states in the restrictive policies, like the United Kingdom ( UK Borders Act 2007 , etc.), The Netherlands , which has passed the Aliens Act in April 2001, Italy, with the Bossi-Finished Act of July 2002, or France, with different Acts (French Law of 24 July 2006 on immigration and integration, and French Law of 20 November 2007 on the control of immigration, integration and asylum). These measures have reduced the number of asylum seekers who are awarded the status of Refugee. [17]

As part of the adoption of four codecision acts, between 4 and 7 May 2009, MEPs voted on 7 the asylum package . [18] This includes a revision of the „reception“ directive and another proposal to improve the Dublin system . The Commission also proposes to revise the regulations Eurodac (biometric database) and create a European Asylum Support Office , partially financed by the European Fund for Refugees , which will be responsible for assisting Member States in the management of asylum applications. Chachipe in Romarights organization has criticized EU asylum policy that denies Roma from the former Yugoslavia asylum based on the „safe country of origin“ [19] doctrine, as they face discrimination in their home countries. [20]

12 EU countries already have national lists of safe countries of origin .

See also

  • European Asylum Curriculum
  • Political Asylum
  • Asylum in the United States
  • European migrant crisis
  • Asylum in Germany


  1. Jump up^ „Common European Asylum System“ . European Commission.
  2. Jump up^ „United Nations General Assembly resolution 429 (V) of 14 December 1950“ . United Nations.
  3. Jump up^ „Summaries of EU legislation: The Schengen area and cooperation“ . The Publications Office of the European Union.
  4. Jump up^ „Reforming the European Common Asylum System: Frequently asked questions“ . European Commission.
  5. Jump up^ „Article 2, page 152, Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union“ . Official Journal of the European Communities, C 340, 10 November 1997.
  6. Jump up^ „Article 63, page 202, Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union“ . Official Journal of the European Communities, C 340, 10 November 1997.
  7. Jump up^ „Articles 67 (2) and 78, Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union“ . Official Journal C 326, 26 October 2012 P. 0001 – 0390.
  8. Jump up^ „Article 18, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union“ . Official Journal C 326, 26 October 2012, p. 391-407.
  9. Jump up^ VALLUY JeromeRejection of exiles – The great reversal of the right of asylum, 2009
  10. Jump up^ ldeucom / 84 / 8407.htm # n35 Select Committee on the European Union Tenth Report, House of Lords
  11. Jump up^ 2144,2579627,00.html Article by Deutsche Welle
  12. Jump up^ According ToAmnesty International, Ukraine is not a safe country for asylum:[1]TheUNHCRaussi Asks not to return asylum seekers to Ukraine
  13. Jump up^ The Independent, London, 17 June 2008
  14. Jump up^ Moloney, Anastasia. „Sweden welcomes Salvadoran woman wrongly jailed for abortion in asylum first“ . Reuters . Retrieved 2017-04-05 .
  15. Jump up^ Mona W. Claussen (27 November 2013)Slik håndterer Europa asylstrømmen Aftenposten based on numbers fromEurostat. Retrieved 5 December 2013
  16. Jump up^ Norway is not a member of the EU, but part of the Dublin Agreement
  17. Jump up^ English documentation, Asylum in the European Union
  18. Jump up^ Asylum policy: Parliament wants to introduce new rules, press release of the European Parliament, 7 May 2009
  19. Jump up^ „Glossary“ . European Migration Network . Retrieved 14 April 2013 .
  20. Jump up^ „Veranstaltung mit frau Phil Dr. Karin Waringo vom Romaverband Chachipe EV, Luxembourg“ . Amnesty International , Konstanz division (in German). December 15, 2012 . Retrieved 14 April 2013 .