Politics of Europe

The  politics of Europe  deals with the continually evolving politics within the continent of Europe . It is a topic far more than other continents due to a number of factors including the long history of nations in the region of the modern day.

The current politics of Europe can be traced back to historical events within the continent. Likewise geography , economy and culture have contributed to the political political make-up of Europe.

Modern European politics is dominated by the European Union , since the fall of the Iron Curtain and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc of Communist states . After the end of the Cold War , the EU expanded eastward to include the former Communist countries . As of 2017, the EU has 28 member states.

Modern political climate

Despite vastly improved relations between Russia and the Western European countries, the recent tensions have risen over the spread of “ Western “ organizations, particularly the EU and NATO, eastwards into forming USSR states.

Most European states have joined their ambition to join the European Union.

There are few conflicts within the Balkans , the Caucasus , Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom and the Basque Country in Spain .

According to 2007 data published in 2008 by Freedom House , the countries of Europe are eligible for liberal electoral democracies are Azerbaijan , Belarus , Bosnia , Kazakhstan and Russia .  [1]

International alliances

European states are members of a large number of international organizations, mainly economics, several or political. The main political unions are detailed below.

Community of Democratic Choice

Main article: Community of Democratic Choice

The Community of Democratic Choice (CDC) was formed in December 2005 at the primary instigation of Ukraine and Georgia, and composed of six post-Soviet states (Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, and the Baltic Assembly members of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) and three other countries of Eastern and Central Europe ( Slovenia , Romania and the Republic of Macedonia ). The Black Sea Forum (BSF) is a closely related organization. Observer countries include Armenia , Bulgaria , and Poland .

Just like GUAM before it, this forum is more likely to influence Russian influence in the area. This is the only international forum in the post-Soviet space in which the Baltic States also participate. The other three post-Soviet states in GUAM.

Council of Europe

Main article: Council of Europe

The Council of Europe is the only pan-European organization. It is involved in a wide range of activities, including treaties and other programs to harmonize law and regulations between its member states, in policy areas such as human rights, citizenship, bioethicsmutual recognition, private international law, environmental and heritage protection, rights of cultural minority and linguistic groups, etc. It is much closer to its nature to a traditional international organization rather than the quasi-federal entity which is the EU – it negotiates, which must be ratified individually, and the lack of international law. could be compared to a regional version of the United Nations. However, in the area of ​​human rights, it has become much more quasi-federal in nature, through the European Convention on Human Rights and its associated court .

Eurasian Economic Union

The Eurasian Economic Union is an economic union of post-Soviet states. The treaty aiming for the establishment of the EEU Was it signed 29 May 2014 by the leaders of Belarus , Kazakhstanand Russia , and is forced into cam 1 January 2015.  [2]  Treaties aiming for Armenia ’s and Kyrgyzstan ’s accession to the Eurasian Economic Union was signed on 9 October 2014 and 23 December respectively. Armenia’s accession treaty came into force on 2 January 2015.  [3]  Although Kyrgyzstan’s accession treaty did not come into force until May 2015, provided it has been ratified,  [4] it will participate in the EEU from the day of its establishment as an acceding state.  [5]  [6]  [7]  [8]  [9]  Moldova and Tajikistan are prospective members.

Euronest Parliamentary Assembly

The Euronest Parliamentary Assembly is the inter-parliamentary forum of the European Parliament and the national parliaments of Ukraine , Moldova , Belarus , Armenia , Azerbaijan and Georgia, and the political and economic partners of the European Union .  [10]

European Union

The European Union , or EU, is a political union of 28 states. It has many activities, the most important being a common single market, a single currency (adopted by 19 of 28 member states),  [11]  Common Agricultural Policy and a Common Fisheries Policy. The European Union also has various initiatives to co-ordinate activities of the member states.

The EU, as a whole, has the largest economy in the world with a nominal GDP of US $ 15,849 trillion in 2007. There is also a trend of moving towards higher co-operation in terms of common defense and foreign policy .

The union has evolved over time from a primary economic union to an increasingly political one. This trend is highlighted by the fact that fall within EU competence; political power has been extended to the member states to the EU. The further development of the political competencies of the EU is the subject of heavy debate between the member states.

Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is a confederation of 12 of the 15 states of the Soviet Union , (the exceptions being the Baltic states ). Although the CIS has few supranational powers, it is more than a purely symbolic organization and possesses co-ordinating powers in the realm of trade, finance, lawmaking and security. The most significant issue for the CIS is the establishment of a full-fledged free trade area and economic union between the member states, launched in 2005. It has also promoted co-operation on democratization and cross-border crime prevention. Additionally, six members of the CISCollective Security Treaty Organization .

Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations

Main article: Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations

The post-Soviet disputed states of Abkhazia , the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic , South Ossetia , and Transnistria are all members of the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations .

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Main articles: NATO , Foreign Relations of NATO , Individual Partnership Action Plan , and Partnership for Peace

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is a military alliance of mainly European states, with the United States of America and Canada . The organization was founded as a collective security measure Second World War .

This provision was intended to be of great benefit to the Union of the United States, and it would have been more important to the United States. retaliation. However, the feared Soviet invasion of Europe never came. Instead, the provision was invoked for the first time in the treaty’s history on 12 September 2001, in response to the attacks of 11 September on the United States the day before.

GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development

GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development is a regional organization of four CIS states: Georgia , Ukraine , Azerbaijan , and Moldova . The group was created as a countering influence of Russia in the area, and it has received backing and encouragement from the United States . Stagnated, recent developments have caused speculation on the possible revival of the organization.

Secessionist and devolutionary pressures

Main article: List of active separatist movements in Europe

It should be noted that these movements, seeking independence or independence, vary greatly in their popular support and political profile, from fringe movements to mainstream campaigns.


The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic is an unrecognized de facto independent Republic in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe . The Armenian majority population reported independence from Azerbaijan in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union . It participates in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations along with other partially recognized states within the region.


Two of Belgium’s party, the Vlaams Belang and New-Flemish Alliance , want Flanders, the northern portion of Belgium, To Become independent. Other Flemish parties. There is also a movement of unification of Flanders with the Netherlands (see Greater Netherlands ).

The autonomous Belgian region of Wallonia has a movement seeking unification with France .

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Some habitants of Republika Srpska , one of the two are entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina (the other being white the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ), the vast majorité of Them being white ethnic Serbs , Would opt for independence from Bosnia and Herzegovina and unification with Serbia . Republika Srpska included 49% of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the country in many spheres. Even if independence is not on the official government agenda, Serbian politicians from the region will see the future status of Kosovo and the status of Republika Srpska.

Croats , who remain a nation of Bosnia and Herzegovina together with ethnic Bosniacs in a joint entity. Some Bosnian Croat politicians have proposed a separate entity for Croats along the lines of the Republika Srpska.


The Danish territories of Greenland and Faroe Islands have very strong independence movements. Greenland’s self-government marks a country under the Danish kingdom.


The Åland Islands has an autonomy. In 2003, the Ålandian separatist party Ålands Framtid was formed. There has been a lot of support for full independence since the independence of Finland , but in the last years the support has grown.


The Mediterranean island of Corsica has a significant and growing group calling for independence from France . There are also movements in the Brittany region of northern France which wish to regain independence lost in 1532, and in Savoy in the south east, which was annexed to France following a disputed referendum in 1860.

Parts of Navarre , Basque Country and Catalonia cross into France.


South Ossetia declared independence on November 28, 1991, and Abkhazia on July 23, 1992. Following the brief 2008 South Ossetia war , both entities were partially recognized as independent by several member states. Georgia considers both „occupied territories“ within its own borders. Both states participate in the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations .


Lega Nord , a party qui est Especially strong in Veneto ( Liga Veneta ) and Lombardy ( Lega Lombarda ), Has Promoted Either secession or larger autonomy for Northern Italy under the name Padania , blaming Southern Italy for siphoning away funds tax and blocking progress. Similar groups are active in Southern Italy. Northern Valdostan Union , South Tyrolean People’s Party , Die Freiheitlichen ,Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party , North-East Union , Veneto State , etc.

In the province of South Tyrol the South Tyrolean Freedom party, which campaigned for the reunion of the province with Austria , while in Sardinia the Independence Republic of Sardinia supports outright independence for the region. The Mediterranean region is home to many autonomist parts: Sardinian Action Party , Sardinian Reformers , Sardinian People’s Party , Sardinian Democratic Union , Red Moors , etc.

Autonomist presidents lead four regions of Italy: Veneto ( Luca Zaia , Liga Veneta), Aosta Valley ( Augusto Rollandin , Valdostan Union), Lombardy ( Roberto Maroni , Lega Lombarda) and Trentino-Alto Adige / Südtirol ( Lorenzo Dellai , Union for Trentino ).


The eastern Moldovan region of Transnistria , which has a large ethnic population, has declared independence from Moldova on 2 September 1990 and is a member of the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations . Despite having no control over the region, the Moldovan government refuses to recognize this claim. There is a significant movement in Moldova and Romania at the reunification of the two countries.


The Frisian National Party seeks more autonomy for Friesland without striving for complete independence. The preservation of Frisian culture is an important goal of the party.


The Sami people want independence for Lapland .  [12]


Before the Treaty of Trianon after World War I , Transylvania belonged to Austria-Hungary , and it contains minorities of ethnic Hungarians who desire autonomy in the country.


Several of Russia’s regions have independence movements, mostly in the state’s north Caucasus border. The most notable of these are Chechnya , Dagestan and Ingushetia , which have had the support of the Russian Federation.

Some Tatar people seek independence for the region of Tatarstan  citation needed  ]


The province of Kosovo is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian (and previously, the Yugoslav ) government and Kosovo’s largely ethnic-Albanian population. International negotiations began in 2006 to determine final status (  See Kosovo status process  ). Kosovo declared independence on 17 February 2008.


Within Spain there are independence movements in Reviews some of the autonomous regions , notably the regions-have That co-official languages Such as Catalonia , the Basque Country , and Galicia . These are mostly peaceful, such as ETA and Terra Lliure , have used violent means.


Some people want independence for Lapland .  quote needed  ]


The Ukrainian autonomous region of Crimea has been annexed by the Russian Federation. The eastern, majority Russian-speaking portion of the country is divided, and there are calls from Some groups for the area to leave Ukraine and join Russia.

United Kingdom

Main article: Politics of the United Kingdom

In Northern Ireland , Sinn Fein and the Social Democratic Labor Party achieve achievement entre em over 40% of the vote at elections,  [13]  with Both Parties Supporting Northern Ireland leaving the United Kingdom and joining the Republic of Ireland to create a United Ireland .  [14]  [15]

In Scotland , the Scottish National Party , Scottish Green Party , and Scottish Socialist Party supporting Scottish independence . The SNP won an outright majority at the Scottish Parliament General Election, 2011 and held the Scottish Independence Referendum, 2014 , in which independence is a very close vote.

In Wales , Plaid Cymru supports Welsh independence .

In England , there are movements, such as the English Democrats , calling for a devolved English Parliament .  [16]  [17]  There are also movements, such as the Wessex Regionalists , calling for devolution of power to the English regions . Movements seeking autonomy  [18]  [19]  or independence  [20]  are also present in the peninsula of Cornwall .

As of 24 June 2016, England officially voted against being part of the European Union. It is currently unknown that they will be officially established as long as two years. However, Scotland still wants to be part of the European Union so England does not leave Scotland to become independent.

See also

  • Council of Europe
  • International organizations in Europe
  • Politics of the European Union
  • European Neighborhood Policy
  • Europe
  • European integration
  • Eurovoc
  • Culture of Europe
  • Economy of Europe
  • Future enlargement of the European Union
  • Geography of Europe
  • History of Europe
  • List of conflicts in Europe
  • List of Europe-related topics
  • OSCE countries statistics
  • Pro-Europeanism
  • Regions of Europe


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