International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology

The International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) Was a research and training center at the Institute of Atomic Research in Agriculture in Wageningen , Netherlands , [1] sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations , the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries . [2]

Aims

The organization’s aim is to address food loss and food safety by developing the introduction of the food irradiation process. They made this by training initiatives, research and feasibility studies. [1]

It was founded in 1978 and was operational until 1990, and during those twelve years over a hundred key personnel from over fifty countries were trained in aspects of food irradiation, [1] making a significant contribution to the development and use of the radiation process. [3] The Facility also co-ordinated research into the technology, economics and implementation of food irradiation, assisted in the assessment of the feasibility of using radiation to preserve foodstuffs, and evaluated trial shipments of irradiated material. [4]

Facilities

The facility had a cobalt-60 source of activity of 100,000 curies (3,700 TBq ), which was stored underwater. [5] Drums or boxes containing products were placed on rotating tables or conveyors , and irradiated by the source of the pool.

Details

During IFFIT’s first five years of operation, 109 scientists from 40 countries attended six training courses, five of them being general training courses on food irradiation and the sixth being specialized in public health aspects. IFFIT also evaluated shipments of irradiated mangoes , spices , avocado , shrimp , onions and garlic , and produced 46 reports. [6]

One trainee noted that Professor DAA Mossel (1918-2004) assisted with the training courses with what he described as “remarkably suggestive readings and his phenomenal foreign language abilities”. [7] From 1988 onwards, Ari Brynjolfsson was director of IFFIT. [8]

Publications

Reports produced by the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology include: [9]

  • Odamtten, GT, & Langerak, DI (1980). Moisture sorption of two maize types under different relative humidity . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Appiah, V., Odamtten, GT, & Langerak, DI (1980). In vitro studies of the combination of heat and radiation on conidia of Aspergillus flavus Link . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Odamtten, GT, Appiah, V., & Langerak, DI (1980). Studies on the feasibility of the application of dry or moist heat to grain and grain products to improve irradiation: Short communication . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Appiah, V., Odamtten, GT, & Langerak, DI (1980). The evaluation of some physical quality parameters after combined treatment of heat and radiation . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Odamtten, GT, Appiah, V., & Langerak, DI (1980). In vitro studies on the effect of the combination treatment of heat and irradiation on spores of Aspergillus flavus Link NRRL 5906 . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Odamtten, GT, Appiah, V., & Langerak, DI (1980). = Production of Aflatoxin B1 during the storage of maize kernels for the combination of heat and gamma irradiation logo CNRS logo INIST Accueil / Home Imprimer / Print Contact / Contact Bookmark and Share Mendeley . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Odamtten, GT, Appiah, V., & Langerak, DI (1980). Production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus flavus in a combination of heat and irradiation . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Odamtten, GT, Appiah, V., & Langerak, DI (1980). Control of molds and spoilage of maize kernels in storage by a combination of Aspergillus flavus and NRP 5906 . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Odamtten, GT, Appiah, V., & Langerak, DI (1980). Preliminary studies on the effect of the combination of heat and gamma irradiation on the maintenance of animal feed and cotton seeds . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Odamtten, GT, Appiah, V., & Langerak, DI (1980). Maize grains: Sensory evaluation and quality of product . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Appiah, V., Odamtten, GT, & Langerak, DI (1980). The technology of heat treatment of cocoa beans . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Rubio, CT, Leveling, HB, & Stegeman, H. (1980). Combined effects of water activity, radiation, heating and storage on the survival and regrowth of Enterobacteriaceae in Chilean fish meal . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Appiah, V., Odamtten, GT, & Langerak, DI (1980). The effect of mild heat treatment and irradiation on eggplants infected with Botrytis cinerea . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Farkas, J. (1981). Objectives and current activities of the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Langerak, DI (1981). Travel report of an IFFIT consulting assignment in Egypt, 24th May-3rd June 1981 . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Nyambati, MGO, & Langerak, DI (1981). Effect of gamma radiation, mild heat, and potassium metabisulphite on the development of Penicillium digitatum and on physiological characteristics in stored lime fruit . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Ofori-Appiah, MA (1981). Application of lyoluminescence dosimetry system in food irradiation technology . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Shirzad, BM, & Langerak, DI (1981). The effect of gamma radiation, pectolytic enzymes and combined treatment on the juice yield of grapes . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Farkas, J. (1981). Microbiological implications of food irradiation . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Farkas, J. (1981). Irradiation of spices and condiments . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology IFFIT, Wageningen. (nineteen eighty one). Annual Report … of the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Nyambati, MGO, & Langerak, DI (1981). Effect of gamma radiation and pectolytic enzymes on lime juice production and its organoleptic quality . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Sudarsan, P. (1981). Final report of a 12-day IFFIT consulting assignment in the Philippines on the techno-economic feasibility of food irradiation . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Shirzad, BM, & Langerak, DI (1981). Gamma irradiation feasibility of increasing shelf-life of table grapes . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Purwanto, ZI, Langerak, DI, & Dren, MDA. (1982). Effect of a combination of packaging and irradiation on the chemical and sensoric quality of soil under tropical conditions . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Farkas, J., Olorunda, AO, & Andrassy, ​​E. (1982). Preliminary, small-scale feasibility studies on the irradiation of some Nigerian foodstuffs . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Farkas, J. (1982). Feasibility of food irradiation processes to developing countries . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Alli, OA, Langerak, DI, & Duren, MDA. (1982). Effect of irradiation, heat, thiabendazole and their combination of the shelf-life and quality of tomatoes . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Farkas, J. (1983). Recent developments in implementation of food irradiation: Draft . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Dimitrova, RG (1983). Application of lyoluminescence dosimetry system in food irradiation technology . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Schmidt, K., Langerak, DI, & Duren, M. (1983). The effect of irradiation and / or heat treatment on phytoalexin accumulation in potatoes var. Bintje . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Prachasitthisakdi, Y., Mossel, DAA, & Vries, J. (1983). Lethality and flora shift of the psychrotrophic and meophilic bacterial association of frozen shrimps and chicken after radicidation . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Ang, LA, Langerak, DI, & Duren, MDA. (1983). Evaluation of Philippines mangoes air-shipped to the Netherlands . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Shrif, MM, Langerak, DI, & Duren, MDA. (1983). The effect of heat, salicylic acid, irradiation and their combination on potatoes . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Shrif, MM, Heins, HG, & Langerak, DI (1983). Pilot-scale storage and quality evaluation of potatoes and onions . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Kuruppu, DP, Schmidt, K., & Langerak, DI (1983). The effect of irradiation and fumigation on the antioxidative properties of some spices . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Kuruppu, DP, Langerak, DI, & Duren, MDA. (1983). Effect of [gamma] -irradiation, fumigation and storage time on volatile oil . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Soedarman, H., Stegeman, H., & Farkas, J. (1983). Decontamination of black pepper by gamma radiation . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Saputra, TS, Farkas, J., & Maha, M. (1984). Trial intercountry shipment of irradiated spices . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Jan, M., Langerak, DI, & Wolters, TC (1984). The effect of packaging and storage conditions on the treatment of infection with a dose of gamma rays: Draft infestation . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Ahmed, MSH, Hameed, AA, & Kadhum, AA (1984). Comparative evaluation of trial shipments of fumigated and radiation desinfested dates from Iraq . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Dinh, NL (1984). Application of lyoluminescence dosimetry system in food irradiation technology . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Farkas, J. (1984). Radiation decontamination of dry food and processing aids . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Farkas, J. (1984). Five years’ experience of the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Ang, LA, Langerak, DI, & Duren, MDA. (1984). Comparative evaluation of untreated and radurized Chilean avocadoes shipped to the Netherlands . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Islam, MS, Langerak, DI, & Wolters, TC (1985). The effect of the combined treatment of heat and irradiation, and the combination of different chemicals and irradiation stored in 20 [degrees] C [elsius], 90 [percent] RH and 15 [degrees] C [elsius], 90 [percent] RH . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Toofanian, F., Stegeman, H., & Streutjens, E. (1985). Comparative effect of ethylene oxide and gamma irradiation on the chemical, sensory and microbial quality of ginger cinnamon, fennel and fenugreek . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Dhirabhava, W., Langerak, DI, & Farkas, J. (1985). The effect of irradiation, hot water treatment and their combination on the fungal spoilage and quality of tomatoes . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Islam, MS, Langerak, DI, & Wolters, TC (1985). The effect of low dose irradiation on the physico-chemical changes in storage at 10 [degrees] C [elsius], 85 [percent] RH . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Langerak, DI, Wolters, TC, & Bogunovic, M. (1985). The effect of irradiation and wrapping on the maintenance of Yugoslav strawberries, and [C] elsius, 85 [percent] RH . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Kim, JH, Stegeman, H., & Farkas, J. (1986). Preliminary studies on the radiation resistance of thermophilic anaerobic spores and the effect of gamma radiation on their heat resistance . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Wongchinda, N., Stegeman, H., & Farkas, J. (1986). Effects of gamma irradiation followed by temperature abuse on the psychrotrophic and mesophilic microbial association of tropical shrimps . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Langerak, DI, Wolters, TC, & Curzio, OA (1987). The effect of irradiation on the care of a child after a trial in Argentina . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • El-Buzedi, M., Langerak, DI, & Wolters, TC (1988). The effect of heat, irradiation, packaging and their combination on the control of rot, caused by Penicillium spp., And on the maintenance quality of lemons . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Quan, VH, Oularbi, S., & Langerak, DI (1988). Effect of wound healing and temperature, irradiation and post-irradiation storage temperature on the maintenance quality of potatoes . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Quan, VH, Langerak, DI, & Wolters, TC (1988). Application of different dosimeter systems and determination of dose distribution in irradiated products . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Oularbi, S., Quan, VH, & Tayeb, Y. (1988). Effect of wound healing and temperature, irradiation dose and post-irradiation storage temperature on the incidence of potatoes, after infection with Fusarium sulfurium . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Goa, D., Langerak, DI, & Wolters, TC (1988). Dosimetry and dose distribution in a food irradiation facility . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • El-Buzedi, M., Langerak, DI, & Wolters, TC (1988). Effect of heat, irradiation, packaging and their combination with tomatoes artificially infected with Botrytis cinerea . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Goa, D., Langerak, DI, & Wolters, TC (1988). Effect of irradiation on the quality of yams from Ivory Coast . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Langerak, DI, Wolters, TC, & Biagio, RMS (1988). Quality evaluation of papayas combined with heat and irradiation: A sea-borne trial shipment from Brazil . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Yakoubi, T., Langerak, DI, & Wolters, TC (1988). Application of dosimetry systems in food irradiation technology . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Elhenshir, O., & Stegeman, H. (1989). Effect of combined treatments of modified atmospheres and low dose gamma irradiation on the shelf-life of fresh macckerel fillets stored in ice at 2 [degrees] C [elsius]: Draft . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • El-Mongy, T., & Stegeman, H. (1989). Effect of irradiation on listeria monocytogenes in chicken: Draft . Wageningen: IFFIT.
  • Wolters, TC, Langerak, DI, & Curzio, OA (1989). Effect of irradiation on the eye of the eye . Wageningen: IFFIT.

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:c Grahame W. Gould (31 December 1995). New Methods of Food Preservation . Springer. pp. 106-107. ISBN  978-0-8342-1341-8 .
  2. Jump up^ G. Gould (1 January 1996). Food Irradiation: A Reference Guide . Woodhead Publishing. p. 169. ISBN  978-1-85573-359-6 .
  3. Jump up^ Amit Kumar (2 April 2008). “Food Irradiation and Development of an Alternative Method for the Detection of 2-alkylcyclobutanone” (PDF) . Retrieved 6 December 2013 .
  4. Jump up^ J. Farkas (1977). “Five years’ experience of the international facility for food irradiation technology” . Radiation Physics and Chemistry . 25 : 227.Bibcode : 1985RaPC … 25..227F . doi : 10.1016 / 0146-5724 (85) 90268-7 .
  5. Jump up^ “Laka publikaties: ITAL 1-geschiedenis” . laka.org. September 15, 2006 . Retrieved 8 December 2013 .
  6. Jump up^ J. van Kooij (1984). “Food irradiation makes progress” (PDF) . IAEA Bulletin . 26 (2): 17-21 . Retrieved 6 December 2013 .
  7. Jump up^ József Farkas and Csilla Mohácsi-Farkas (2011). “History and future of food irradiation” . Trends in Food Science & Technology . Elsevier. 22 (2-3): 121-126. doi : 10.1016 / j.tif.2010.04.002 .
  8. Jump up^ “Ari Brynjólfsson heiðraður af bandarískum kjarnorkuvísindamönnum: Talinn fremstur í geislarannsóknum” . Tíminn (271). November 25, 1988. p. 6 . Retrieved 2 December 2013 .
  9. Jump up^ “Search Results” . WorldCat . Retrieved 10 December 2013 .

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