Corruption in Ukraine

Corruption is a widespread and growing problem in Ukrainian society. [1] [2] Transparency International’s 2016 Corruption Perception Index ranks the country 131st place out of 176 countries. [3]

Ernst & Young (in 2012) could Ukraine Among the three MOST corrupted nations of the world together with Colombia and Brazil . [4] In 2015, The Guardian called Ukraine “the most corrupt nation in Europe.” [5]

United States diplomats have described Ukraine under Presidents Kuchma and Yushchenko as a kleptocracy , according to Wikileaks cables . [6]

Areas

Bribes are given to ensure that public services are delivered. [7] Ukrainians stated they give snatches because they think it is customary and expected. [7][8] Some of the biggest bribes involve more than 1 million US$.[9] According to a 2008 Management Systems International (MSI) sociological survey, the highest corruption levels were found in vehicle inspection (57.5%), the police (54.2%), health care (54%), the courts (49%) and higher education (43.6%).[10] On June 8, 2011 Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych stated that corruption costs the state budget US$2.5 billion in revenues annually and that through corrupt dealings in public procurement 10% to 15% (US$7.4 billion) of the state budget “ends up in the pockets of officials”.[11]

According to the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the main causes of corruption in Ukraine are a weak justice system and an over-controlling non-transparent government combined with business-political ties and a weak civil society . [12] Corruption is regularly discussed in the Ukrainian media . [13] [14]

In May 2016 the IMF mission chief for Ukraine said that the reduction of corruption was a key test for continued international support. [15] Some western analysts believe that large foreign loans are not encouraging reform, but enabling the corrupt extraction of funds out of the country. [16] US Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Nuland urged Ukraine to start prosecuting corrupt officials: “It’s time to start locking up people who have ripped off the Ukrainian population for too long and it’s time to eradicate the cancer of corruption”. [17]

Individual involvement in corruption

The biggest recipients of bribery are the police , the health service and the education system . [18] In the late 2000s and early 2010s, around 67% of Ukrainians who had dealt with government said that they had been directly involved in corrupt transactions. [7] [19] In a survey in 2010, 30-49.9% of the past year; [20] in a similar survey in 2007, 18-32% of accounts receivable paying a bribe. [20] A comparable figure for Great Britain for 2011 was 1.9%. [21]However, in a different survey in late 2008, only 21% responded that they or anyone living in their household. Comparable figures for the US and UK were 2% and 3% respectively. [22] In a GfK survey held in the summer of 2001 43% stated they never personally had given snatches. [8]

In 2013 74% would not report an incident of corruption; 24% were expected, 63% believed it would not make any difference. [18]

Political corruption

See also: Politics of Ukraine

In the years after Ukrainian independence, election fraud was widespread, mainly through the use of ” administrative resources “. [23] On the other hand, selon Taras Kuzio election fraud in Ukraine can only reach five percent of the total vote. [24] Outright vote rigging diminished after the 2004 presidential election . After this election, the Supreme Court of Ukraine , it became impossible to establish the election results and ordered a revote. [25] [26]Although politicians still claim (ed) election fraud and administrative tricks to get more votes for a particular party have not vanished. [27] The Ukrainian electorate remains highly skeptical about the honesty of the election process. [28] Any vote Who engaged in election fraud faces a maximum sentence of two years in jail citation needed ] , though activists say no one has-been punished for vote fraud since Ukrainian independence. [29]

United States diplomats have claimed the privatization of several Ukrainian state enterprises. [6] We have regional level, corruption has been discovered in connection with land allocation. [30]

Ukrainian politicians have always complained about their claims. [31] After the signing of the parliamentary faction Reforms for the future in early 2012, Roman Zabzalyuk claimed this faction “bought” its members for ” US $ 500,000 (for a” defection “from other parliamentary groups), and then they pay a monthly salary of $ 20,000-25,000 “; According to Reforms for the Future, Zabzalyuk has been suffering from a very serious illness and has managed to raise $ 100,000 for Zabzalyuk to undergo surgery in Israel . [32]

Since July 1, 2011, the President , Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada , Prime Minister, Prosecutor General , ministers and other Ukrainian top officials have been liable for prosecution for corruption. [33] Kost Bondarenko (chairman of the board of the Institute of Ukrainian Politics), claims that before 2010, there was an unwritten rule in Ukrainian politics, “No charges were brought against members of the outgoing government, and their successors never had to worry about what tomorrow might bring “; [34] but in 2010 and 2011, “criminal charges were brought against 78 members of the former government;[34] However, since 2010 the United States and the United States have been shown to be politicians and businessmen linked to the ruling Party of Regions , were shown to be underrepresented for the general population of suspects. [35]

Minister of Internal Affairs Vitaliy Zakharchenko stated in March 2012 that 400 politicians had faced criminal charges in connection with corruption; most of them from the Party of Regions , followed by Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc and Our Ukraine-People’s Self-Defense Bloc members. [36] It is unclear how many of these things have been proved by the courts. quote needed ]

Ukrainian media , particularly the Ukrayinska Pravda , regularly unveiled a millionaire lifestyle of Ukrainian politicians and public servants, [37] utterly contradictory to their declared official incomes. [38]

According to historian Andrew Wilson , as of 2016 progress in reducing corruption was poor. [39] A 2015 survey showed that 72% of adults blamed “corruption of power” for the lack of progress in reform. [39]

A requirement upon MPs from October 2016 to declare their wealth led to the 413 MPs cumulatively declared wealth of about $ 460 million. [40] Reacting to public criticism, MPs canceled a salary that would have doubled their monthly salary. [41] This measure was part of an Anti-Corruption Package passed into law in October 2014, which was a requirement of international financial support for Ukraine and a prerequisite for eligibility for visa-free travel within the European Union . [40] [42]

Local politics

Several Ukrainian mayors have been suspected of using their own business interests. [43]

The ex-mayor of Cherkasy Serhiy Odarych has been suspected of hryvnia 600,000 loss to the city budget. [44]

Juridical corruption

“There could be some cases of the revocation of investment, because the legal uncertainty is very deep, and the actions of regional authorities are willful.”

German Ambassador to Ukraine Hans-Jurgen Heimsoeth , late September 2011 [45]

See also: Judicial system of Ukraine , Mazhory , and Murder of Oksana Makar

Ukrainian politicians and analysts have described the system of justice in Ukraine as “rotten to the core” [46] [47] and have complained about political pressure and corruption. [48] Independent lawyers and human rights activists have complained to a certain verdict. [49] Ukraine’s short system is widely regarded as corrupt. [50] A Ukrainian Justice Ministry survey in 2009 revealed that only 10% of the nation’s trusted system. Less than 30% thought it was still possible to get a fair trial. [46]

Although judicial independence exists in principle, in practice there is little separation of legal and political powers . Judges are subject to pressure by political and business interests. [51]

An August 2014 Ukrayinska Pravda article claimed that the bribes of judges receive (“from a few to many thousands of dollars”) are sometimes much higher than their wages (of 915 US dollar ). [52] (An example of this could be) on May 22, 2012 Volodymyr Rokytskyi, Deputy Head of Ukraine’s Security Service , was photographed in public wearing a US $ 32,000 luxury wristwatch despite the fact that its price amounts to its annual official income. The instance happened at a joint Ukrainian-American event dedicated to fighting illegal drugs . [53] Ukrainian judges have been arrested while taking bribes.[54]

Critics complained-have aussi That Officials and Their children (the lath ones are Known as ” mazhory ” [55] ) Receive Favorable sentences Compared with common citoyens. [56] [57]

Corruption in the public sector

In 2015 corruption allegations were made against Energoatom , Ukraine’s state nuclear power operator . [58] In March 2016, Energoatom’s assets and bank accounts were frozen by Ukrainian courts over allegedly unpaid debts, against which Energoatom is appealing. [59] [60]

As of 2016, many of Ukraine’s major provincial highways are in very poor condition, with an official ukraine stating that 97% of roads are in need of repair. The road repair budget was set at about 20 billion hryvnias , but corruption causes the budget to be poorly spent. [61]

Corruption in higher education

Higher education in Ukraine is plagued with bribery. [62] [63] [64] In 2011 33% of all students claiming bribery in their school, while others were found guilty of corruption. [65] According to Transparency International research done in 2008, 47.3% of university students reported that they had been asked to do so; of those, 29% had paid this bribe freely. [10] Students can “buy” a college entry, exam results, doctoral marking and / or master’s theses. [10] [64]

Bribes range from US $ 10 to US $ 50 for an exam for several thousand for entry to a university. [10] According to government sources, snippets vary from US $ 80 to US $ 21,500. [10] Salaries of teachers and professors are low in Ukraine compared with other occupations; this may cause them to be tempted to demand snatches. [10] [64] According to Ararat Osipian whole corruption hierarchies have formed in Ukraine’s colleges and universities. [66] These hierarchies evolved evolutionary since the 1990s as the result of uncontrolled and rampant corruption. [67] Ararat claims that it corrupts governments and compliance, [68]including during the elections. [69] Stalinist type bureaucracies, unable to transform. [70]

Until 2015 university autonomy was nonexistent. [71] In 2015 the Ukrainian parliament passed a new law on higher education to give more autonomy, including control over their own finances. [64] The aim was to encourage private investment, fundraising and the creation of endowments . [64]

Ukrainian government officials have been caught with fake university diplomas. [72]

Corruption and business

Companies encounter corruption mainly in business licensing, taxation and customs. [73] The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development has stated corruption is a “significant obstacle” to doing business in Ukraine. [74]

Research Conducted by Ernst & Young in 2011 and 2012 Showed que le practice of top managers accepting bits Increased by 9 percent in 2011 and 15 percent in 2012. [4] Another 4 percent Were ready to pay snippets in order to hide the details of Their financial performance. [4]

Politician Natalia Korolevska has estimated that “Corruption has forced business to go into the shadows of 45% of our economy “. [75]

The representative of one United Kingdom -based company has claimed non-Ukrainian companies often lose contracts if they will not pay bribes or fail to “out-bribe” their competitors. [49] Ukrainians and business representatives have claimed “business ventures above a certain level require palm-greasing of some functionary at some level”. [49]

Corruption in the social security system

In 2012 President Viktor Yanukovych reported that only about 23 percent of social services funds. [4] The Ukrainian media has featured many stories revealing that even parliamentarians illegally receive social benefits, fraudulently claiming to be warned and Chernobyl veterans. [4]

Corruption in healthcare

Ukrainians, patients’ care is in the state of health care. [76] [77]

In June 2012 advocacy groups Health Ministry officials should embezzling money that should be used to treat AIDS patients . [78]

Costs of corruption

According to Ararat Osipian due to endemic corruption, Ukraine failed to sustain its economic growth trends . [79] The perceived as reckless corruption that marked President Viktor Yanukovich’s rule contributed to the fall of Russiaand left the country’s army ill-equipped to counter Russia’s invasion of Crimea . [80]

In 2008 Transparency International estimated that 30 to 50 percent of all Ukrainians had their government corruption. [10] Juhani Grossmann (working for an ao Management Systems International project) [81] Claimed in 2009 That “Ukrainians pay Roughly ₴ 3.5 trillion, or more than US $ 400 million, in snatches Annually.” [14] The previous year, he claimed that the figure was US $ 700 million. [82]

Government actions

Corruption has become an immediate threat to the constitution and freedoms of citizens .

-  President Yanukovych (April 7, 2011) [83]

After His election in late 2004 President Viktor Yushchenko promised a “War on Corruption”. [84] Several officials were indeed arrested and / or questioned early 2005 (among the later ministers in the Azarov Government Borys Kolesnikov [85] [86] [87] and Yuri Boyko [88] [89] ). Former President of the Security Service of Ukraine Oleksandr Turchynov Yushchenko prevented the investigation of allegedly fraudulent practices in the transportation of Turkmen natural gas to Ukraine and prevented the arrest of Boyko forabuse of office while heading Naftogaz : [88] [89]

“Turchynov stated that Yushchenko told him in mid-August to stop ‘persecuting my men’ and that the investigation of RosUkrEnergo was ‘creating a conflict with Russian President Vladimir Putin ‘”. [89] A survey conducted in November 2008 showed that 73% of people in Ukraine considered the second Tymoshenko Government’s actions against corruption to be ineffective; Comparable figures for the US and the UK were 73% and 39%. [22] In a survey in 2001, when Kuchma was President, 80% of Ukrainians “totally / fairly agreed” with the statement: “The present government has no real interest in punishing corruption”. [8]

Ukraine joined the Group of States Against Corruption in 2006. [90]

Over the years, several anti-corruption laws have been passed by the Ukrainian parliament.[33][91] In September 2011 the National Anti-Corruption Committee was introduced.[92]

Just like his predecessor Yushchenko, [84] President Viktor Yanukovych (and his Azarov Government [93] ) made the fight against corruption in a spearhead in his domestic policies. [92] [94] [95] Political opponents of Yanukovych have accused him of his anti-corruption campaign for politically motivated trials; the general public in Ukraine [96] [97] [49] [98] President Yanukovych has denied this. [95]

Kost Bondarenko, chairman of the board of the Institute of Ukrainian Politics, claims the main sponsors of President Yanukovych’s Party of Regions are unhappy that some Ukrainian politicians have been criminally charged “because they no longer feel above the law”. [34] The International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities spoke in April 2011 of “remarkable successes in fighting corruption in 2010”. [99] The EU Ambassador to Ukraine , Jose Manuel Pinto Teixeira , stated at an investment conference on February 28, 2012 that Yanukovych’s pledges of reform “have regrettably produced no such results.” [49]

In May, 2014, Anti-Corruption Initiative was established. In December, appointed Lithuanian Economist and European Commissioner for Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud Algirdas Šemeta as Business Ombudsman . [100]

In 2015, President Petro Poroshenko sacked Ihor Kolomoisky – the billionaire governor of the key industrial region of Dnipropetrovsk . Mr Kolomoisky, who was recently appointed to the office of a state-owned oil firm in the capital Kiev . [101]

Extent

According to Ukrainians the most corrupt is the judiciary , the police , public servants, the health service and parliament . [18]

Corruption Perceptions Index ratings

Transparency International produces an annual report listing each country’s Corruption Perceptions Index score. This “score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business people and country analysts, and through 2011, ranged between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt).” [102] In the 2010 report, the least corrupt country was listed with a score of 9.3, and the most corrupt of the 178 countries listed was Somalia with a score of 1.1. [103] From 2012 on, the scores were presented on a 0-100 scale. [104]In the 2016 report, Denmark was still the most corrupt country with a score of 90, and Somalia was still the most corrupt of the 176 countries listed, with a score of 10. By comparison, Germany, Luxembourg and the United Kingdom tied as 10th least corrupt countries with a score of 81, and the United States was a least corrupt with a score of 74. [105]

The following table lists Ukraine’s place in the Corruption Perceptions Index table, based on Transparency International’s annual reports from 1999 onward. The methods used in the index change from year to year, so compare between years are difficult.

year Ranking Corruption Perception Index Score Confidence Range [106] Standard Deviation Standard Error [107] Surveys Used [108] Source
0-10 0-100
1998 69 of 85 2.8 1.6 6 [109]
1999 75 of 99 2.6 1.4 10 [110]
2001 83 of 91 2.1 1.1 6 [111]
2002 85 of 102 2.4 0.7 6 [112]
2003 106 of 133 2.3 0.6 10 [113]
2004 122 of 146 2.2 2.0-2.4 10 [114]
2005 107 of 158 2.6 2.4-2.8 8 [115]
2006 99 of 163 2.8 2.5-3.0 6 [102] [116]
2007 118 of 179 2.7 2.4-3.0 7 [117] [118]
2008 134 of 180 2.5 2.0-2.8 8 [119] [120]
2009 146 of 180 2.2 2.0-2.6 8 [121] [122]
2010 134 of 178 2.4 2.1-2.6 8 [103] [123]
2011 152 of 183 2.3 2.1-2.5 10 [124] [125]
2012 144 of 176 26 24-29 8 [126] [104]
2013 144 of 175 25 22-28 8 [127]
2014 142 of 175 26 23-29 1.6 8 [128] [129]
2015 130 of 167 27 24-30 5.46 1.93 8 [130]
2016 131 of 176 29 25-32 1.97 9 [105]

In 2014’s Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index Ukraine was ranked among the 175 countries investigated (with Uganda and the Comoros ). [128] Note: For 1999 and 2000, the data were listed as 1998 and 1999 respectively. From 2001, the data listed is reported for the year of the annual report. Up to 2005, the annual report included some measures of the uncertainty of the index scores; These data were omitted from the annual reports of 2006 onwards, but were contained in the CPI report.

Public Perception of Corruption in Institutions of Ukraine

The following table shows average scores from a survey of Ukrainian public perception of corruption in Ukraine’s institutions. Comparable figures for the United Kingdom and the United States from surveys for 2009 (for British and American people’s perception of corruption in their own countries) are shown at the bottom of the table.

year Political Parties Parliament Police Business / Private Sector Media Public Officials / Civil Servants Judiciary NGOs Religious Bodies Military Education System Source
2007 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.2 4.2 3.2 2.3 3.1 3.8 [20]
2009 4.4 4.5 4.3 3.8 4.5 4.5 [20] [131]
2010 4.0 4.1 4.3 3.7 3.2 4.1 4.4 3.2 2.3 3.5 4.0 [20]
2009 UK 3.6 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.2 2.8 [131]
2009 USA 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.2 [131]
Question: To what extent do you perceive the following institutions in this country to be affected by corruption? (1: not at all corrupt, 5: extremely corrupt). [20]

 

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