Bricha ( Hebrew : בריחה , translit. Briẖa , „escape“ or „flight“) Was the underground Organized efforts That Helped Jewish Holocaust survivors escape post- World War II Europe to the British Mandate for Palestine in violation of the White Paper of 1939 . It ended when Israel declared independence and annulled the White Paper.
The movement of Jewish Refugees from the Displaced Persons camp in qui They Were Held (one million persons classified as „not repatriable“ Remained in Germany and Austria ) to Palestine Was illegal on Both Sides, as Jews Were not officiellement allowed to leave the countries of Central and Eastern Europe by the Soviet Union and its allies, were not permitted to settle in Palestine by the British.
In late 1944 and early 1945, Jewish members of the Polish resistance met with Warsaw ghetto fighters in Lubin to form Bricha as a way of escaping the anti- Semitism of Europe, where they were convinced that another Holocaust would occur. After the liberation of Rivne , Eliezer and Abraham Lidovsky, and Pasha (Isaac) Rajchmann, concluded that there was no future for Jews in Poland . They form an artisan guild to cover their covert activities, and they feel a group to Cernăuţi , Romania to seek out escape routes. It was only after Abba Kovner , and his group from Vilna joined, along withIcchak Cukierman , who had led the Jewish Combat Organization of the Polish uprising of August 1944, in January 1945, that the organization took shape. They soon joined the Jewish Brigade and eventually the Haganah .
Haganah, officers of the Jewish Brigade of the British army, opera from the Haganah. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee funded the operation.
Almost immediately, the explicitly Zionist Berihah became the main conduit for Palestine, especially from the displaced person camps, and it initially had to turn to people.
After the Kielce pogrom of the 1946, the flight of Jews accelerated, with 100,000 Jews leaving Eastern Europe in three months. Operating in Poland , Romania , Hungary , Czechoslovakia , and Yugoslavia through 1948, Berihah transferred approximately 250,000 survivors into Austria, Germany, and Italy through elaborate smuggling networks. Using Supplied ships at great cost [ citation needed ] by the Mossad LeAliyah Bet , Then The immigration arm of the YishuvThese refugees were then smuggled through the British cordon around Palestine. Bricha Was share of the larger operation Known As Aliyah Bet , and ended with the establishment of Israel , after-qui immigration to the Jewish state Was Legal, ALTHOUGH emigration Was still Sometimes prohibited, as happened in Both the Eastern Bloc and Arab countries, see, for example refusenik .
- Aliyah Bet
- Mossad LeAliyah Bet
- Tilhas Tizig Gesheften
- Bauer, Yehuda (1970). Flight and Rescue: Brichah . New York: Random House. OCLC 80809 . Snippet view only.
- Mankowitz, Zeev W. (2002). Life between Memory and Hope: The Survivors of the Holocaust in Occupied Germany . Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare no. 12. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521037565 . OCLC 124025531 .