Anti-Europeanism

Anti-Europeanism  and  Europhobia  are political terms used in a variety of contexts, implying sentiment or policies in opposition to ” Europe “.

In the context of racial or ethno-nationalist politics, this may refer to the culture or peoples of Europe (see anti-white sentiment in the United States ); In the shorthand of “Europe” standing for the European Union or European integration , it can refer to Euroscepticism , criticism of policies of European governments or the European Union.  [1]  In the context of United States foreign policy, it can refer to the geopolitical divide between ” transatlantic “, “transpacific” and “hemispheric” (pan-American) relations. The nominal antonyms would be  pro-Europeanism  or  Europhilia  . clarification needed  ]

“Europhobia” is used of British attitudes toward the Continent , either in the context of anti-German sentiment or anti-Catholicism ,  [2]  or, more recently, of Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom .

American exceptionalism in the United States  [3]  HAS long led to criticism of European domestic policy (Such As the size of the welfare state in European countries)  [4]  and foreign policy (Such As European countries That did not Support the US led 2003 invasion of Iraq ).  [5]  The ideological split between reverence for European refinery and classics and an emerging anti-French and anti-European sentiment played by John Adams , Alexander Hamiltonand their fellow Federalists, and Thomas Jefferson and other Democratic-Republicans urging closer ties . quote needed  ]

See also

  • Anti-Americanism
  • Anti-European feeling (disambiguation)
  • Europeanism
  • Eurocentrism
  • Eurotrash (term)
  • Pan-European identity
  • Stereotypes of Americans

References

  1. Jump up^  “Europhobia definition and meaning” . Collins English Dictionary . Retrieved 2017-02-21 .
  2. Jump up^  R. Miles in: April Horner (ed.), European Gothic: A Spirited Exchange 1760-1960 (2002),[1]Thérèse Remus, Germanophobia, Europhobia, Xenophobia – About Stereotypes in Anglo-German Relations (2012)
  3. Jump up^  Anti-Europeanism and Euroscepticism in the United States, Patrick Chamorel No 25, EUI-RSCAS Working Papers from the European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies (RSCAS) 2004
  4. Jump up^  Elsner (2005), McPherson (2003)
  5. Jump up^  Lexington (2007), Ash (2003) Pipes (2006)
  • Todd Gitlin (3 February 2003). “Europe? Frankly, America does not give a damn ..”  The Guardian  .  Rumsfeld’s is as old as America, an extension of Europe, which in some sense has been founding itself as anti-Europe.
  • Denis Boyles (October 29, 2004). “Like, Wow” .  National Review Online  .  As  liberation  reports with some shock, after centuries, during which the mention of  France  was ‘enough to evoke notions of elegance and refinement’ (especially in American trailer parks ) suddenly the word ‘French’ has ‘become a dirty word’.
  • Lexington (26 April 2007). “Anti-Europeanism is a bad response to anti-Americanism” .  The Economist  .
  • Alan Elsner. “Anti-Europeanism Flourishes on US Right” .  Common Dreams NewsCenter (Published on Thursday, June 30, 2005 by Reuters )  . Archived from the original on October 17, 2006.  On the economic front, the United States has consistently produced higher growth rates in Europe. Some US commentators blame the excessive regulations imposed by the European Community . Others say Europeans are plain lazy. “35-hour workweek in a world where Indian engineers are ready to work”, wrote New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman earlier this month.
  • Daniel Pipes (November 14, 2006). “Steyn’s New Book Combines Humor, Accuracy, Depth” .  The New York Sun  . Book review of Mark Steyn ‘s  America Alone  .
  • Scott McPherson (21 February 2003). “Healthcare Socialism” .  Future of Freedom Foundation  . Archived from the original on 7 December 2006.
  • Eugen Weber (23 June 1991 review of  The Birth of the Modern: World Society 1815-1830,  by Paul Johnson . New York : HarperCollins , 1991). “Everything’s Up-to-Date in 1830” .  The New York Times  .  The age of wars of national liberation, of massacres and countermassacres, of anti-European propaganda and anti colonial rhetoric Dawned in Latin America around 1810. There, as in Greece – serious of Many illusions – or later in Italy , we depended nationalists foreign aid , or the incompetence of the power they challenged.
  • Jussi Pakkasvirta ( Professor of World Politics, University of Helsinki – Renvall Institute and  El Norte – The Finnish Journal of Latin American Studies  ). “Nationalism and Continentalism in Latin American History” .  Continentalist definitions presented a fervent anti-European thinking. ” Antenor Orrego :” European traditions in Latin America have been more destructive to the well-being of the continent than US imperialism . European decadence and vices to be replaced by ‘ authentic americanism .’ ” Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre: ” Marxism was a too Eurocentric theory to be applied in Latin American circumstances.
  • John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson . “The Imperialism of Free Trade” .  The Economic History Review , Second Series, Vol. VI, no. 1 (1953)  . Mount Holyoke College . Archived from the original on 2008-12-21.  Foreign loans and predatory bankers by the 1870s had wrecked Egyptian finance and were tearing holes in the Egyptian political fabric. The Anglo-French dual financial control, designed to the foreigners and to restore Egypt as a good risk, provoked anti-European feeling.
  • Toyin Falola and Tyler Fleming. “Postcolonial Nationalism in Africa” .  Science Encyclopedia, The History of Ideas Vol 4  .  African nationalism of the 1950s and 1960s was overtly anti- colonial gold or anti-European.
  • Robert Craig Johnson (1998). “COIN: French Counter-Insurgency Aircraft, 1946-1965” .  The World at War  .  Algeria presented France with a set of tactical and political problems as different as the North African land differed from That of Indochina . Politically, Algeria was an integral part of the French Republic rather than a colony. Its native Berber and Arab people were technically French citizens. But discrimination was rife, and the European immigrants , the  ” blackfoot ,” had a stranglehold on local government, owned most of the arable land, and controlled the police . When Arabs and Berbers were formally elected to form a provincial assembly in 1948 and 1951 , blatant fraud gave the  blackfoot  a sweeping victory. The resulting anti-European riots were savagely reproduced at a cost of thousands of lives.
  • Ali A. Mazrui (1999). “Between Terrorism and Wars of Liberation” .  Swahili Online  . Archived from the original on 2006-11-11.  If anti-European and anti- colonial terrorism in Africa, anti-American and anti-Zionist terrorism in the Middle East has not yet found its momentum of triumph. Both the Middle East and Africa have been paying a price for anti-American terrorism . The violent price which is important in Palestine , Iraq and in neighboring countriesAfghanistan . What is the price which Africa is paying for the United States ?
  • Timothy Garton Ash . “Anti-Europeanism in America” .  Hoover Digest 2003 # 2  ( Earlier version in The New York Review of Books , February 13, 2003).  We-have to Distinguish entre legitimate, informed criticism of the EU or current European attitudes and Some deeper, more-settled hostility to Europe and Europeans as such … Anti-Europeanism is not symmetrical with anti-Americanism … [which] is a real obsession for entire countries, notably for France, as Jean-Francois Revel has recently argued.

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