Hartz concept

The Hartz concept , also known as Hartz reforms or the Hartz plan , is a set of recommendations submitted by a committee to the German labor market in 2002. Named after the head of the committee, Peter Hartz , these recommendations went on to become part of the German government ’s Agenda 2010 series of reform, known as Hartz I – Hartz IV. The committee devised thirteen „innovation modules“, which recommended changes to the German labor market system. The Hartz I measurements were then undertaken between January 1, 2003, and 2004, while Hartz IV was implemented on January 1, 2005. Read More…

Agenda 2010

The Agenda 2010 is a series of the German Government , a Social-Democrats / Greens Coalition at that time, which aims to reform the German welfare system and labor relations. The declared objective of 2010 is to promote economic growth and thus reduce unemployment. Read More…

Social security in Germany

Social security in Germany is codified on the Sozialgesetzbuch , or the „Social Code“, contains 12 main parts, including the following,

  • Unemployment insurance and public employment agencies (SGB II and III)
  • Health insurance (SGB V)
  • Old age pension insurance (SGB VI)
  • Invalidity insurance (SGB VII and IX)
  • Child support (SGB VIII)
  • Social care (SGB XI)

Read More…

Nordic model

The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism [1] or Nordic social democracy ) [2] [3] refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden). This includes a combination of free market capitalism and a comprehensive welfare state and collective bargaining at the national level. [4] [5] The Nordic model began to earn attention after World War II. [6] [7] Read More…


Flexicurity (a portmanteau of flexi bility and is curity ) is a welfare state model with a pro-active labor market policy. The term first coined by Was the social democratic Prime Minister of Denmark Poul Nyrup Rasmussen in the 1990s.

The term refers to the combination of labor market flexibility [1] in a dynamic economy and security for workers. Read More…

European social model

The European social model is a common vision many European countries have a society that combines economic growth with high living standards and good working conditions . Historian Tony Judt has argued that the European social model „binds Europe together“ in contrast to the “ American way of life „. [1]

European states do not use a single social model , but welfare states in Europe. These include a commitment to full employment , social protections for all citizens, social inclusion , and democracy. Examples common among European countries include universal health care , free higher education, strong labor protections and regulations, and generous welfare programs in areas such as unemployment insurance, retirement pensions, and public housing. The Treaty of the European Community set out several social objectives:promotion of employment, improved living and working conditions … good social protection, dialogue between management and labor, the development of human resources with a view to lasting high employment and the combating of exclusion. [2] Because different European states focus on different aspects of the model, it has been argued that there are distinct social models in Europe – the Nordic, the British, the Mediterranean and the Continental. [3] [4] Read More…

European Quality in Social Services

EQUASS (European Quality in Social Services) is an integrated sector-specific quality certification system that certifies compliance with social services . EQUASS AIMS to Enhance the social sector by Engaging providers service in quality and continuous improvement and by Guaranteeing quality of the service users Services Throughout Europe.

EQUASS, [1] formally called the European Quality in Rehabilitation Mark (EQRM) is an initiative of the European Platform for Rehabilitation (EPR) [2] and its secretariat is based in Brussels . Read More…

Anti-austerity movement

The anti-austerity movement refers to the mobilization of street protests and grassroots that has occurred across various countries, especially in Europe , since the onset of the world Great Recession .

Anti-austerity actions are varied and ongoing, and can be sporadic and loosely organized and long-term and tightly organized. They continue as of the present day. The global Occupy movement has arguably been the most noticeable physical enactment of anti-austerity and populist sentiment. Read More…