Road safety in Europe

Road safety in Europe encompasses Transportation Safety Among road users in Europe , Including automobile accidents , pedestrian or cycling accidents motorcoach accidents and other incidents Occurring dans le European Union gold dans le European Region of the World Health Organization (49 countries). Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured.

History and trends

Various geographical safety organization The Commissioner of Transport of the EU considers road safety as a key European success story. [3]

World Health Organization

The World Health Organization issued a European Status Report on road safety. [4]

Ninety per cent of WHO countries have a safety agency; [4] operating with their respective transport ministries, except in CIS countries where the topic falls under the interior minister.

From an EU perspective

Road safety is based upon the EU principle of subsidiarity : national and local autorités are responsible for MOST decisions, Including enforcement and awareness-raising, while the EU Operates a general framework for Improved road safety through legislation and recommendations eg minimum Introducing safety requirements for the Trans-European Transport Networks, and technical requirements for the transport of dangerous goods. [5]

The EU publishes various legal texts concerning road safety. [6]

The European Transport Safety Council is an NGO based in Brussels. It aims to reduce the numbers of deaths and injuries in Europe. The Council has reported an increase in fatalities in most European countries in 2015. [7]

Issues

Killed definition

Patton’s grave in Luxembourg City : On December 8, 1945, while still in Europe, while on the subject of an invitation to Patton’s chief of staff, Major General Hobart Gay , his car collided with an American army truck at low speed. [8]

The 1968 Vienna convention defines a fatal road accident as an accident in which a person died of their injuries at the scene or within thirty days. This definition has been adopted by most EU countries.

For instance, France has counted till 2004, its killed at six days, a multiplicative coefficient 1.057 has been used till 2004 and 1.069 since 2005 to convert the killed at six days in killed at thirty days, before France adopted the international definition in 2005.

Injuries

Each year road crashes around 120 000 fatalities and 2.4 million injuries in the World Health Organization. Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults. [4]

In 2015, the European Commission published a figure for the number of people seriously injured on Europe’s roads: 135 000 people in 2014. To obtain this figure all countries of the EU injury. [9]

In Europe, for every person killed in traffic crashes, many people suffer from serious injuries with life-changing consequences.

Serious injuries are more costly to society because of the long-term rehabilitation and healthcare needed. Vulnerable road users, such as pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists or elderly road users, are especially concerned. [5]

Other issues

The level of transport-related air pollution is also a major public health concern in most countries of Europe. [4]

Main road casualties indicators

Pedestrian accident rental sign in Stuttgart , Germany

Many differences between countries are linked to demography, development and population density. According to Siem Oppe of the SWOW a learning behavior appears in the changes in the level of fatalities over time:

  • in the poorest countries, there are few trips and less public transport. Motorized road traffic is very low (less than 30);
  • the growth of car sales leads to a greater increase in traffic and accident rates;
  • on the other hand, the richest countries experience a lot of congestion and more developed transport and road safety policies. Drivers’ behavior is more important than the ratio of killed victims.
Country Area(thousands km²) Population(Million) Density(inhabitants / km 2 ) Available vehicles(Thousands) Network length(Km) Traffic(million vehicles x km) Vehicle number per 100 inhabitants Killed by millionGutman Killed by billion km driven
Germany 357 80.6 225.7 54.520 626.981 684.283 66.1 64.8 7.8
austria 84 8.4 100 5,279 107.143 82.221 64.5 93.8 9.3
belgium 33 11.1 336.4 6.159 151.372 94.677 59.1 104.5 11.5
denmark 43 5.4 125.6 2,570 72.074 47.940 47.3 61 6.9
spain 505 47.3 93 27.657 666.204 ND 63.7 103.1 ND
finland 338 5.4 16 2,871 79.150 51.675 54.7 72.2 7.3
la France 551 66.6 120.9 37.168 1002486 552.800 61.4 87.9 9.6
greece 132 10.8 81.8 6,641 40.164 81.635 59.9 149.1 20.3
hungary 93 9.9 106.4 3,370 180.994 ND 33.4 126.6 ND
ireland 71 4.5 63.3 1,937 95.752 37.840 46.7 96.2 10.5
italy 301 60.9 202.3 43.141 305.388 654.197 74.3 94 8.3
luxembourg 3 0.5 166.7 358 2,876 2.875 77 98.9 16
Netherlands 42 16.8 400 8,627 117.430 133.800 52.9 46 5.6
poland 323 38.5 119.2 16.815 381.462 377.289 43.6 141.3 14.4
Portugal 93 10.5 112.9 5,481 81.739 ND 52.2 118.8 ND
United Kingdom 244 63.2 259 33.717 413.120 499.396 56 55.9 6.7
Slovakia 49 5.4 110.2 1,834 17.755 13.402 34 112.6 45.4
slovenia 20 2 100 1,150 20.196 15.519 58.5 131.2 16.6
sweden 450 9.5 21.1 5,131 214,000 75.196 56.8 48.7 5.9
Czech Republic 79 10.5 132.9 4,732 55.495 50.262 46.3 125.8 27.2
Total partial EU (20 countries) 3,809 467.8 122.8 269.158 4631781 3451938 59.7 88.5 11.6
iceland 103 0.3 2.9 236 91.916 2,006 80.3 64.6 9.5
norway 324 5.1 15.7 2,938 92.511 36.550 63.6 48.5 6.1
switzerland 41 8 195.1 5,043 71.027 62.685 68 55.2 6.5

Source IRTAD for those data:
automobile Count: 2005 except Ireland 2003; Luxembourg 2004; Slovakia 2002.
Network length: 2005 except Hungary and Luxembourg 2004; Germany and Denmark 2003; Slovakia 2002; Iceland 2000; Ireland 2001; Netherlands 1999; Greece and United Kingdom 1998; Portugal 1993; Italy 1992.
Kilometers: 2005 except Denmark 2004; Italy and Netherlands 2003; Ireland 2001; Iceland and Slovakia 2000; Greece and United Kingdom 1998.
Population: IRTAD source except Ireland, Luxembourg, Slovakia, Sweden, Iceland and Norway: source INED. United Nations and World Bank

Mortality within EU, per million inhabitants in 2013
  • source Eurostat

Nationals means of local variation, so in 2015, NUTS regions with the lower fatality ratio per million inhabitants, are Stockholm (6), Vienna (7), Hamburg and Oslo (11), Berlin (14) and East Sweden (15) ). [10] The same year, other regions have a worst fatality such as Luxembourg province of Belgium (210) and Kastamonu in Turkey (192).

UK Position

Mortality in UK is compared to EU.

EU mortality by state per million inhabitant in 2013
  • source Eurostat

Transportation mode effect

Car drivers and their passengers formed the greatest proportion of road fatalities in 2013 at 45%, followed by pedestrians at 22%. These vary among nations with high levels of fatalities for motorcycles [11]

Road accident fatalities by category of vehicles as of 2013. [12]

  Cars & taxis (44.7%)
  Light Goods Vehicles (3.1%)
  HGV (1.7%)
  Buses & coaches (0.6%)
  Bicycles (7.8%)
  Mopeds (2.9%)
  Motorcycles (15.0%)
  Pedestrians (21.9%)
  Other (2.3%)

In the world and within the European Union (28 members), mortality depends upon modal transportation:

transport mode Travelers fatalities
per 100 million passenger-kilometers
(EU-15)
1999 2001-2002
m-bike 16 13.8
Football 7.5 6.4
bike 6.3 5.4
because 0.8 0.7
small boat 0.33 0.25
bus & coaches 0.08 0.07
Air (civil aviation) 0.08 0,035
Train 0.04 0,050

Transport safety (modal comparison)

transport mode Travelers fatalities
per 100 million passengers-hours
(EU15)
1999 2001-2002
m-bike 500 440
bike 90 75
Football 30 25
Because 30 25
Air (civil aviation) 36.5 16
small boat 10.5 8
Train 3 3
bus & coach 2 2

Sources:

  • pdf: 1999 period in the European Union , European Transport Safety Council .
  • pdf: Period 2001/2002 , European Transport Safety Council .

Rating roads for safety

Since 1999 the EuroRAP initiative has been assessing major roads in Europe with a road protection score. This results in a star rating for road based on it’s design would protect the occupants of being severely injured or killed if a head-on, run-off, or intersection accident occurs, with 4 stars representing a road with the best survivability features . [15] Where road users are routinely maimed and killed for want of safety features, sometimes for the purpose of road safety. [16]

There are plans to extend the measurements to the probability of an accident for the road. These ratings are being used to inform planning and authorities’ targets. For example, in Britain, two-thirds of all road deaths in rural areas, which score badly when compared to high quality motorway network; 80% of rural deaths and serious injuries, while 40% of rural car occupants are in cars that hit roadside objects, such as trees. Improvements in driver training and safety features for rural roads are hoped to reduce this statistic. [17]

The number of registered officers in the UK fell from 15-20% of police force strength in 1966 to seven percent strength strength in 1998, and between 1999 and 2004 by 21%. [18] It is an item of recklessness or reduction in traffic accidents per 100 million miles driven over this time [19] has been due to robotic enforcement.

Law

EU law

Alcohol, Drugs and Medicine, Professional Drivers – Training, Professional Drivers – Working Conditions, Professional Drivers – Tachograph, Professional Drivers – Check of the working Conditions, Third Countries Driver Certification, Vehicles – type approval, Vehicle – Vehicle Registration, Vehicle – Technical Control, Vehicle – Vehicle Safety, Vehicle – Safety Belts and other Restraints Systems of Vulnerable Users, Vehicle – Vehicle – Daytime Running Lights, Vehicle – Blind Spot Mirrors, Vehicle – Conspicuity, Vehicle – Speed ​​limitation Devices, Vehicle – Weights and Dimensions, Transportation of Dangerous Goods – Weights and Dimensions, Road Infrastructure, Emergency Calls, Accident Data Collection, Unit of Measurement.[6] Some Of Those texts are documented in Wikipedia, Such As Directive 80/1269 / EEC , European driving license , European Emission standards , End of Life Vehicles Directive

National (local) laws

European countries usually have good laws on speed control; drink-driving; helmets; seat-belts and child car restraints: [4] most countries have laws relating to one or another concern, but less than a third of countries have laws and controls for each of them.

Local specificities

UK regions

Compared mortality in UK NUTS 1 regions.

Expenditure

Simulator Lisbon , Portugal

In Europe, expenditure for traffic safety is far less than the costs of road traffic injuries. [4]

See also

  • Transportation safety in the United States

References

  1. Jump up^ ROAD SAFETY: What is the situation in your country? ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/pdf/statistics/dacota/scoreboard_2015_en.pdf Based on CARE / Eurostat data
  2. Jump up^ Database IRTAD_CASUAL_BY_AGE stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=IRTAD_CASUAL_BY_AGE
  3. Jump up^https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/transport/files/road_safety/pdf/vademecum_2015.pdf
  4. ^ Jump up to:fhttp://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/43314/E92789.pdf
  5. ^ Jump up to:b “European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – 2016 road safety statistics: What is behind the figures?” . europa.eu .
  6. ^ Jump up to:b “EU Road safety policy – Mobility and Transport – European Commission” . Mobility and transport .
  7. Jump up^https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/533293/rrcgb-main-results-2015.pdf
  8. Jump up^ Axelrod 2006, p. 167.
  9. Jump up^ SemiColonWeb. “Commission publishes first official serious figures as 275 MEPs back EU target – ETSC” . etsc.eu .
  10. Jump up^ Eurostat
  11. Jump up^ “Road accident fatalities – statistics by type of vehicle” . eurostat . Retrieved 19 September 2017 .
  12. Jump up^ “Road accident fatalities by category of vehicles, EU-28, 2013” . eurostat . Retrieved 19 September 2017 .
  13. Jump up^ “Global status report on road safety 2015” . World Health Organization .
  14. Jump up^https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/sites/roadsafety/files/pdf/statistics/2013_transport_mode.pdf
  15. Jump up^ “Star ratings roads for safety: UK trials 2006-07” . EuroRAP. 3 December 2007. Archived from the original is 14 December 2007.(Note: see country maps here[1])dead link ]
  16. Jump up^ John Dawson, John. “Chairman’s Message” .
  17. Jump up^ “Star Rating Roads for Safety, UK Trials 2006-07” (PDF) . TRL, EuroRAP & ADAC. December 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-27.
  18. Jump up^ “Section 21, traffic officer numbers reduction in the UK”(PDF) . Retrieved 9 April 2012 .
  19. Jump up^ “Page 147 Transport statistics 2009 edition” (PDF) . Dft.gov.uk. March 31, 2012. Archived from the original(PDF) on April 29, 2011 . Retrieved 9 April 2012 .

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