Government of France

The  Government of the French Republic  ( French :  Government of the French Republic  ) exercises executive power in France . It is composed of a prime minister, who is the head of government , and both junior and senior ministers .  [1]  Senior Ministers are titled as Ministers ( French :  Ministers  ), whereas Junior Ministers are titled as Secretaries of State ( French :  Secretaries of State  ). A smaller and more Powerful executive body, called Expired the  Council of Ministers  ( French :  Cabinet Senior Secretaries of State may attend Council meetings. The Council of Ministers is Chaired by the President of the Republic , Unlike the government, profit is still led by the Prime Minister, Who Was officiellement titled as the President of the Council of Ministers ( French :  Chairman of the Council of Ministers  ) During the Third and Fourth Republics .  [1]  By comparison, the Government of France is equivalent to Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom , the Council of Ministers is equivalent to the Cabinet of the United Kingdom(although, in being presided over by the President of the Republic, and not by the Prime Minister, it also bears some resemblance to Her Majesty’s Most Honourable Privy Council ).

Composition and formation

All members of the French government are nominated by the President of the Republic on the Prime Minister.  [2]  Members of the government are ranked in a particular order, which is established at the time of government formation. In this hierarchy, the Prime Minister is the head of government. He is nominated by the President of the Republic. Whilst the President is nominally free to nominate whomever he likes, in practice he must nominate a candidate who will consider the will of the majority of the National Assembly , as the government is responsible to parliament .  [3] After being nominated to lead a government, the Prime Minister nominee must propose a list of ministers to the President. The President may accept or reject these. Ministers are ranked by importance:

  • Ministers of State ( French :  Ministers of State  ) are senior Ministers, and are members of the Council of Ministers. It is an honorary rank, granted to some Ministers as a sign of prestige.
  • Ministers ( French :  Ministers  ) are senior Ministers, and are members of the Council of Ministers. They lead government ministries .
  • Secretaries of State ( French :  Secretaries of State  ) are junior Ministers. This is the lowest rank in the French ministerial hierarchy. Secretaries work directly under a Minister, or directly under the Prime Minister. While the Council of Ministers does not include Secretaries of State as members, Secretaries may expect meetings of the Council if their portfolio is up for discussion.

Functions

According to the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic , the direct government and the policy of the nation.  [4]  In practice, the government writes bills to be introduced to parliament , and also writes and issues decrees . All political decisions made by the government must be registered in the government gazette. All bills and some decrees must be approved by the Council of Ministers. Furthermore, it is the Council of Ministers that defines the collective political and policy direction of the government and takes practical steps to implement that direction. In addition to writing and implementing policy, the government is responsible for national defense, and direct actions of the French Armed Forces .  [4]  The workings of the French government are based on the principle of collegiality .

Practice

Meetings of the Council of Ministers take place every Wednesday morning at the Élysée Palace . They are presided over by the President of the Republic, who promotes solidarity and collegiality of government.  [5]  These meetings follow a set format. In the first part of a meeting, the Council deliberates over general interest bills, ordinances, and decrees.  [6]  In the second part, the Council Discusses individual decisions by Minister Each Regarding the appointment of senior civil servants. In the third place, it is usually necessary to give a presentation on the subject of which it is directing, or the President will ask for advice on the subject of the Ministers. In addition, the Minister of Foreign Affairs provides the Council with weekly updates on important international issues.  [6]

Most government work, however, is done elsewhere. Much of it is done by each individual ministry, under the direction of the Minister responsible for that ministry. Ministers-have Each Their Own staff, has called Expired “ministerial office” ( French :  Ministerial Cabinet  ).  [7]  Each ministerial cabinet consists of around ten to twenty members, who are political appointees. Cabinet members assist the Minister in running a ministry. Members of ministerial cabinets are powerful figures within the government, and work in both political and administrative spheres.  [7] The hierarchy in each ministerial cabinet is determined by the Minister. Working groups consisting of representatives of several ministries are commonplace. It is the duty of the Prime Minister to oversee these inter-ministry meetings, and to ensure that it is effectively and efficiently.

Budget

The government is responsible for the economic and financial policy of the French Republic , and also manages all revenue. Expenditures are made through what is called Expired a “finance law” ( French :  Finance Act  ), qui is equivalent to an appropriation bill . Each minister must prepare a list of requests for funds annually, and submit it to the Budget Ministry. This ministry decides whether to grant or deny requests for funding by ministers. The ministry also calculates the budget for the coming year. The parliament must vote on all applications of finance law.

Separation of powers

Members of the French Government may not occupy any position of occupational or occupational leadership at the national level, any public employment, or any professional activity.  [8]  These restrictions are in place to alleviate external influence and influence on government, and to enable them to focus on your governmental work. Despite these restrictions, members of government are allowed to keep local elected positions , such as those of city mayor or regional councillor. Whilst the Constitution of the French Republic does not prohibit ministers from being the leader of a political party, it is not recommended that such a post.

Relations with Parliament

The government is responsible for the French Parliament . In particular, the government assumes responsibility for its actions before the National Assembly , and the National Assembly can dismiss the government with a motion of censorship .  [9]  The chair of the board of directors, who is appointed to the position of President of the Senate or the Prime Minister, compromising separation of powers . If the government decides to launch it, it must first consult parliament and request an authorization.  [10] The Prime Minister may agree to parliament for extraordinary sessions, or add additional sitting to the legislative calendar.  [11]

Current government

Main article: Second Philippe government

Ministries

The names of ministries change often in France. This is a list of current ministries:

  • Ministry of the Interior
  • Ministry for an Ecological and Solidary Transition
  • Ministry of Justice
  • Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs
  • Ministry of the Armed Forces
  • Ministry of Territorial Cohesion
  • Ministry of Solidarity and Health
  • Ministry of Economy and Finance
  • Ministry of Culture
  • Ministry of Labor
  • Ministry of National Education
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Food
  • Ministry of Public Action and Accounts
  • Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation
  • Ministry of Overseas France
  • Ministry of Sport

References

  1. ^ Jump up to: b   “A SHORT GUIDE TO THE FRENCH POLITICAL SYSTEM” . 19 October 2014 . Retrieved 5 December 2014 .
  2. Jump up^  Constitution of the French Republic (Title II, Article 8)
  3. Jump up^  “France: The role of the president” .  Encyclopædia Britannica  . Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2014 . Retrieved 6 December 2014 .
  4. ^ Jump up to: b  Constitution of the French Republic (Title III, Article 20)
  5. Jump up^  Constitution of the French Republic (Title II, Article 9)
  6. ^ Jump up to: b   “How Government Works” . Government of France . Retrieved 6 December 2014 .
  7. ^ Jump up to: b   A. DUTHEILLET DE LAMOTHE (December 1965). “Ministerial Cabinets in France”.  Public Administration  .  43  (4): 365-475.
  8. Jump up^  Constitution of the French Republic (Title III, Article 23)
  9. Jump up^  Constitution of the French Republic (Title V, Article 49)
  10. Jump up^  Constitution of the French Republic (Title V, Article 35)
  11. Jump up^  Constitution of the French Republic (Title IV, Articles 28 and 29)

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